These are some concepts and terms used in a presentation on the ethics of war, given at Oklahoma Baptist University on December 1, 2017.
Consequentialist Pacifism: Although war is not intrinsically wrong, the benefits of war are always outweighed by the costs.
Deontological Pacifism: War is always intrinsically wrong, regardless of its consequences.
Doctrine of Double Effect
War could be permissible, even if we know that innocent lives will be lost, if
- Taking innocent life is not the reason that we go to war,
- The lives that are saved are proportionally greater than the lives that will be lost,
- Taking innocent life is not the means to saving lives, and
- Saving lives is otherwise permissible.
Jus ad bellum: Conditions that determine when a state can justly go to war.
Jus in bello: Conditions that specify how a war must be fought
Jus post bellum: Conditions that determine when one can justly end hostilities.
|Jus ad bellum||Jus in bello||Jus post bellum|
|Just cause||Obey international law||Just cause|
|Right intention||Discrimination||Right intention|
|Last resort||Humane treatment of POW’s||Proportionality|
|Probability of success||No means mala in se|
Ten principles of just peacemaking: 1
- Support nonviolent direct action.
- Take independent initiatives to reduce threat.
- Use cooperative conflict resolution.
- Acknowledge responsibility for conflict and injustice and seek repentance and forgiveness.
- Advance democracy, human rights, and religious liberty.
- Foster just and sustainable economic development.
- Work with emerging cooperative forces in the international system.
- Strengthen the United Nations and international efforts for cooperation and human rights.
- Reduce offensive weapons and weapons trade.
- Encourage grassroots peacemaking groups and voluntary associations.
- From Just Peacemaking: Ten Practices for Abolishing War, 2d ed., edited by Glen Stassen (Pilgrim Press, 2004). [return]